• Anna P. Khmelevskaya
  • Oleg F. Zholobov
  • Georgiy A. Molkov



paleography, Paleoslavistics, spelling, Galician-Volhynian manuscripts, Gankenstein code, Vienna octoides, ancient Russian monuments of the 12th-13th centuries


Hankenstein Code (Vienna Octoix) is the collection of liturgical texts dating by the XII-XIII centuries or by the beginning of the XIIIth century. Since 1804, the general descriptions of the collection appear in the works by I.A. Ganke von Gankenstein, J. Dobrovsky, S. Smal-Stotsky, A. Sobolevsky, Yu. Shevelev, G. Birkfellner. Nowadays, there is no satisfactory analysis of the Code text at all levels, including graphic one. In order to study the spelling and the paleographic features of the manuscript, the main text, the inscriptions and the drawings on the fields, ornaments, the material for writing, the present state of the manuscript and its parts were described. We found that the text was written by two scribes, characterized the manner of writing each of them, determined the differences in the graphics and spelling (different use of the letters я, 1, 8 and o). A large number of external letters was noted and 7 basic traits of the title were described, 3 types of superscripts and 6 types of inline signs were fixed, their graphic and functional features were described. For the first time corrections and the entries were described on the margins of the manuscript. The examples found in the text of the letters э, е and и, в and оу proved the hypothesis of the southwestern origin of the monument.


Não há dados estatísticos.

Biografia do Autor

Anna P. Khmelevskaya

Kazan Federal University, Leo Tolstoy Institute of Philology and Intercultural Communication

Oleg F. Zholobov

Kazan Federal University, Leo Tolstoy Institute of Philology and Intercultural Communication

Georgiy A. Molkov

Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Linguistic Studies


Lyubashchenko V. Religious manuscripts of Halych-Volhynian Rus’ of the 12th–14th centuries: an attempt to generalization // Княжа доба: історія і культура, 2011. – № 4. – pp. 65–99.

Hanke von Hankenstein J. A. Recension der ältesten Urkunde der slavischen Kirchengeschichte, Litteratur und Sprache: eines pergamenten Codex aus dem VIII Jh., 1804. – 64 pp.

Turilov A.A. Gankenstein Codex // Orthodox Encyclopedia. - 2005. - V. 10. - pp. 411-412.

Shevelov G. Y. Omega in the Codex Hankenstein // Studia Linguistica Alexsandro Vasilii Issatschenko a Collegis Amicisque oblate, 1978. – pp. 369–386.

Birkfellner G. Codex Hankenstein (Codex Vindobonensis slavicus 37): Neutestamentliche Perikopen, 2006. – 445 s.

Birkfellner G. Codex Hankenstein (Codex Vindobonensis slavicus 37): Liturgischer Festkalender für den Jahreszyklus der unbeweglichen Feste, 2007. – 448 s.

Molkov G.A. Peculiarities of the language and writing of the Pogodinsky Gospel (RNB POGOD 11) // Die Welt der Slaven, 2016. – № 2 (61). – pp. 230–253.

Oktoechos mit Supplementen: Sog. Codex Hankensteinianus [Electronic resource] URL: (reference date: 11.05.2017).

Cherepnin L.V. Russian Paleography. - M., 1956. - 616 p.

Voskresensky G.A. Slavic manuscripts stored in foreign libraries: Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Ljubljana, Zagreb and two Belgrade ones. - St. Petersburg: the Printing house of the Imperial Academy of Sciences, 1882. - 58 p.

Zholobov O.F. The corpus of the Old Russian copies of the Paraenesis of Ephraem Syrus. II: RNB, Pogod. 71a // Russian Linguistics, 2009. – Vol. 33. – pp. 37–64



Como Citar

KHMELEVSKAYA, A. P. .; ZHOLOBOV, O. F. .; MOLKOV, G. A. . PALEOGRAPHY AND ORTHOGRAPHY OF HANKENSTEIN CODEX. Gênero & Direito, [S. l.], v. 8, n. 5, 2019. DOI: 10.22478/ufpb.2179-7137.2019v8n5.48642. Disponível em: Acesso em: 31 jan. 2023.



Seção Livre