ON THE ISSUE OF THE STAGE OF INITIATING A CRIMINAL CASE:
NOTION, CONTENT AND PROBLEMS OF FUNCTIONING OF THE CRIMINAL-PROCEDURAL INSTITUTION
topicality of the problem is due to the discussion on the issue of excluding the stage of initiating a criminal case from the criminal procedure as a separate criminal-procedural institution. This problem is not new. The article traces the history of discussions over this problem and its topicality: this procedure, “as a separate element of criminal process, is aimed at providing the rights and legal interests of its participants, both on the part of defense and on the part of prosecution”. The objective of this stage of criminal procedure is to protect an individual from groundless involvement into a criminal trial. The article objective is to reveal the notion and content of the stage of initiating a criminal case, in order to define its meaning. The research presents an analysis of literature on the problem. Basing on the literature analysis, the contradictions in the opinions of procedural law specialists are analyzed. The leading research method is comparative method. The research presents the analysis of various opinions on the problem. The analyzed literature shows an unexplained feature of similarity-difference: on the one hand, the opponents of private interest in the public criminal procedure insist on rejecting the institution of a civil suit within a criminal case; on the other hand, the opponents of the stage of initiating a criminal case wish to return to the private-legal principles of the legal procedure used before the 1864 reform, when criminal prosecution was supposed to start with an allegation from a private individual. Having studied the history and literature on the issue of the stage of initiating a criminal case, we come to a conclusion that this issue is still topical nowadays. The article proposes means of broadening the list of investigative actions which are feasible at the stage of initiating a criminal case. The materials of the article may be useful both for practical and educational activities in the sphere of criminal-procedural law.
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