• Victor A. Novozhenov Republican State Enterprise
  • Elina K. Altynbekova Scientific-restoration laboratory “Ostrov Krym”
  • Aibek Zh. Sydykov Republican State Enterprise
Palavras-chave: steppeland culture, migrations, wheeled transport, cattle-breeding, tin-mettallurgy, clan-leadership.


The authors of the article studied the origin of Indo-European tribes in the light of ancient communications and the spread of the tribes according to wheeled transport relics in the steppe zone of Eastern Eurasia. The authors considered some modern theories related to Indo-European (IE) and Indo-Iranian (IIr) origin, defined IE innovations that marked the territories as possible homelands for IEs, and localized them on the map and. The authors used the method of mapping and analysing of IE innovations for localization of possible homeland teritories of IE on the maps and substantiate the polycentric model of the ancestral homeland of IE as model of “nomadic homeland”. According to this model, the IE homeland was localized in the steppe-lands of Eurasian continent, and in the course of time changed its place from Assyrian steppes to Eurasia (Europe and Ural-Kazakh steppes) by two main ways (north and south) through Margiana and Transcaucasia.


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List of abbreviations
IE – the Indo-Europeans.
IIr – the Indo-Iranians.
JIES – Journal of Indo-European Studies.
KSIA – Brief reports of the Institute of Archaeology of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. – Moscow: Nauka.
MNC – Maikop-Novosvobodnaya community.
MRA – Materials and research on the archeology of the USSR.
PAS – Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences.
PPS – Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society. – London.
RAY – Russian Archaeological yearbook. – St. Petersburg.
RSH – Reports of the State Hermitage. – Leningrad.
SA/RA – Soviet archaeology/ Russian archeology. – Moscow: Nauka.
SAPAR – Siberian Association of Prehistoric Art Researchers.

List of figures
Figure 1. Urals-Kazakh steppes. Reconstruction of true chariot drawn by two horses, according to the evidence of Early Andronovo chariot burials. Reconstructed by Viktor Novozhenov and Krym Altynbekov [2014]
Figure 2. The channels of communication in the 3rd millennium BCE: Era of vans and battle wagons. Colored arrows on the map: white – Pit-Grave and Afanasievo communication channel; yellow – Sumerian communication channel; black – Turanian communication channel; red – Harappan communication channel
Figure 3. The alleged localization of Indo-European homelands in the 3rd millennium BCE. I – Anatolia and Northern Mesopotamia; II – Central Europe; III – Transcaucasia (foothills and steppe); IV – Late Ural-Kazakh “Indo-Iranian homeland”. Colored arrows on the map: white – Pit Grave and Afanasievo communication channel; yellow – Hittite-Mitannian communication channel; black – Turanian communication channel; red – Harappan communication channel; blue – Maicop migration; green – Hittite-Luwian migration; dotted black arrow – Chemurchek migration
Figure 4. Localization of the petroglyphs of Central Asia, containing images of chariots and carts. 1 – Akdzhilga; 2 – Tekke-Tash; 3 – Ohna; 4 – Karakiyasay; 5 – Thor; 6 – Chibbarnala; 7 – Dharampuri; 8 – Chatur Bhu Nash; 9 – Eda Kalkave; 10 – Zhaltyryk-Tash; 11 – Ters; 12-18 – Koibagar, Arpauzen, Koshkar Ata, Gabaevka, Kokbulak, Ran-Ozen, Xan; 19 – Saimaly-Tash; 20 – Tamgaly; 21 – Chumysh; 22 – Jambul; 23 – Kesteletas; 24 – Baikonur 3, “N”; 25 – Sayak; 26 – Eshkiolmes; 27 – Akbaur; 28 – Kurchum; 29 – Moinak; 30 – Tulkune; 31 – Saur Tarbagatai; 32-35 – Kalbak-Tash, Zhalgyz Tepe, Elangash, Adyrkhayev; 36 – Yamany-Us; 37 – Tsagaan Gol; 38 – Bichigty Am; 39 – Hobd Somon; 40 – Beger Somon; 41 – Chuluut; 42 – Darvi Somon; 43 – Manlan Somon; 44 – Havtsgayt; 45 – Urad (the Lang Mountains); 46 – Jiangsu (Kanguan); 47 – Syin Churek; 48 – Mugur Sargol-Ching; 49 – “The Way of Genghis Khan”; 50 – Ortaa Sargol; 51 – Ust Tuba; 52 – “Shaman Stone” (Oglakhty); 53 – Suhaniha; 54 – Mount Tunchuh; 55 – Oshkol; 56 – Mount Sedlovina; 57 – Mount Shishka; 58 – Mount Polosataia; 59 – Transbaikalia; 60 – Sulek; 61 – Tabangut Obo
Figure 5. The channels of communication in the 2nd millennium BCE: The era of Chariots. Colored arrows on the map: white – Seima-Turbino communication channel (the Tin Road); yellow – Turanian communication channel; black – Hittite-Mitannian communication channel; red – Egyptian communication channel; blue – Indian communication channel
Figure 6. Estimated localization of the ancestral homeland of the late Indo-Europeans at the end of the 3rd and the beginning of the 2nd millennium BCE. Colored arrows on the map: white – Seima-Turbino communication channel (the Tin Road); yellow – Turanian communication channel; black – Hittite-Mitannian communication channel; red – Egyptian communication channel; blue – Indian communication channel
Como Citar
A. NOVOZHENOV, V.; K. ALTYNBEKOVA, E.; ZH. SYDYKOV, A. INDO-EUROPEAN COMMUNICATIONS:. Gênero & Direito, v. 9, n. 04, 30 maio 2020.
Seção Livre