BIRTH OF SAINT PETERSBURG AGGLOMERATION UNDER THE RULE OF PETER THE GREAT IN 1703–1724

  • Sergey V. Sementsov Saint Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering
  • Nadezhda A. Akulova Saint Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering
Palavras-chave: Peter the Great, Saint Petersburg governorate, “ideal” Saint Petersburg and “ideal” Saint Petersburg agglomeration created on principles of regular planning and development.

Resumo

Relevance of this paper’s subject is due to the necessity to elaborate a modern program of the development of Saint Petersburg agglomeration in northwest Russia for the following 15–20 years (up to the 2030s) based on the historical and genetical features of its origin and development. The aim of the paper was to study the early stage of the uprising of the initially urban (and subsequently metropolitan) Saint Petersburg agglomeration in the 1703–1720s on the basis of the drastic functional alterations of the rural resettlement scheme that had existed here over the centuries. The main approach to the problem was a comprehensive city-planning, functional and landscape analysis based on the examination of historical cartography and archival documents. Principal study results include the findings that a purposeful deliberate creation of the ‘’regular” metropolitan Saint Petersburg agglomeration on the orders of Peter the Great was conducted on the basis of the already existed rural resettlement scheme merging historically Russian territories and, partly, newly conquered in 1702–1709). In the 1703–1720s it went through three phases of the primary formation, and spatial development of the governorate and agglomeration outpaced emergence and crystallization of their single center. Future single center of the agglomeration and the center of the governorate, Saint Petersburg, developed with a chronological gap with the territories development. Thus, in the case of Saint Petersburg agglomeration, first of all territories, their nodes and routes were formed by the administrative order, and only afterwards the center was formed which integrated them. This variant of the governorate, agglomeration and their center formation is unconventional for the history of agglomerations development. The data of the article may be useful for both city-planning historians and modern urban specialists.

Referências

Isachenko G.A. Okno v Evropu: Istoriya i landshafty ["Window to Europe": History and landscapes]. Saint Petersburg: Saint Petersburg State University Press, 1998. 476 pp.
Kositskiy Ya.V. Arkhitekturno-planirovochnoe razvitie gorodov [Architectural and planning city development]. Moscow: "Arkhitektura-S", 2005. 648 pp.
Shvidkovskiy D.O. ‘Osnovanie Peterburga’ [Saint Petersburg foundation],A.I. Bondarenko (ed.), Arkhitektura v istorii russkoy kultury [Architecture in the history of Russian culture], Is. 7: Sankt-Peterburg i arkhitektura Rossii [Saint Petersburg and Russian architecture].Moscow: KomKniga, 2007, pp. 8–24.
Hehl R.‘Cultivating the Field in the Global Hinterland: Community Building for Mass Housing in the Amazon Region’, J. Bolchover, J. Lin, Ch. Lang (eds.),Designing the Rural: A Global Countryside in Flux.Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2016, pp. 34–41.
Roskam C. ‘Inventing the Rural: A Brief History of Modern Architecture in the Countryside’,J. Bolchover, J. Lin, Ch. Lang (eds.),Designing the Rural: A Global Countryside in Flux.Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2016, pp. 14–19.
Tokunova G. ‘Transport infrastructure as a factor of spatial development of agglomerations (Case study of Saint Petersburg agglomeration)’,U. Brannolte, P. Pribyl, V. Silyanov (eds.), The Proceedings of reports presented at the 12th International Conference on Road Organization and Safety in Big Cities (St Petersburg, 28–30 September2016). Elsevier, 2017, pp. 649–652.
Sementsov S.V. ‘Territorialnoe razvitie Prinevya: preobrazovanie i stabilnost’ [Spatial development of the circum-Neva region: Transformation and stability],A.S. Mylnikov (ed.), Skandinavskie chteniya 1998 goda. Etnograficheskie i kulturno-istoricheskie aspekty [Scandinavian readings 1998: Ethnographical, cultural and historical aspects]. Saint Petersburg: MAE RAS, 1999, pp. 117–163.
Gnevushev A.M. Ocherki ekonomicheskoy i sotsialnoy zhizni selskago naseleniya Novgorodskoy oblasti posle prisoedineniya Novgoroda k Moskve [Outline of economical and social life of rural population of Novgorod region after joining Moscow]. Vol. 1. Selskoe naselenie Novgorodskoy oblasti po Pistsovym knigam 1495–1505 gg. [Rural population of Novgorod region according to cadastres of 1495–1505]. Kiev: Printing House of the ImperialSt Vladimir University, Joint-stock company of printing and publishing of N.T. Korchak-Novitskiy, 1915. 783 pp.
Gipping A.I. Neva i Nienshants [Neva and Nyenschantz]. Saint Petersburg: Liga Plyus, 2003.472 pp. (Reprint of the 1909 edition).
Gorchakov I. ‘Novgorodskie i shvedskie Pistsovye knigi kak material dlya vyyasneniya ekonomicheskago polozheniya Peterburgskago kraya v XV–XVII stoletiyakh’ [Novgorod and Sweden cadastres as data for revealing economical state of Petersburg land in the 15th–17th centuries], Trudy Volnago Ekonomicheskago Obshchestva [Transactions of the Free Economic Society], vol. 3. Saint Petersburg: Printing House of the “Social benefit” partnership, 1885, pp. 482–496.
Kepsu S. Peterburg do Peterburga. Istoriya ustya Nevy do osnovaniya goroda Petra [Saint Petersburg before Saint Petersburg: History of the Neva river delta before foundation of Peter’s city] (Russian transl. from Finnish). Saint Petersburg: Evropeyskiy dom, 1995. 127 pp.
Sementsov S.V. ‘Sistema poseleniy shvedskogo vremeni i planirovka Sankt-Peterburga pri Petre I’ [Settlement system of the Swedish period and Saint Petersburg planning under Peter the Great], A. Kobak, Suzanne Koncha Emmerikh, M. Milchik, B. Jangfeldt (comps.),Shvedy na beregakh Nevy [Swedes on the Neva river banks]. Stockholm: Swedish institute, 1998, pp. 129–138.
Sementsov S.V. ‘Sledy Niena v sovremennom Sankt-Peterburge’[Traces of Nyen in Contemporary Saint Petersburg], K. Abukhanfusa, R. Chitnis, L.Thompson(eds.), Water Cities: Saint Petersburg – Stockholm. Stockholm: Riksarkivet, 1998, pp. 25–48.
Sementsov S.V., Skogoreva Ye.V., Akulova N.A. Administrativno-territorialnoe delenie Sankt-Peterburga i Sankt-Peterburgskoy gubernii XVIII – nachala XX v.: Uchebnoe posobie [Administrative and territorial division of Saint Petersburg and Saint Petersburg governorate in the 18th – beginning of the 20th century: Textbook]. Saint Petersburg: Saint Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering, 2014. 172 pp.
Zaozerskaya Ye.I. Manufaktura pri Petre I [Manufacture under Peter the Great]. Moscow – Leningrad: ASUSSR Press, 1947. 186 pp.
Petrov P.N. Istoriya Sanktpeterburga s osnovaniya goroda do vvedeniya v deystvie Vybornago gorodskago upravleniya po uchrezhdeniyam o guberniyakh. 1703–1782 [History of Saint Petersburg from the foundation to the establishment of the Elected municipal department of the governorates offices. 1703–1782]. Saint Petersburg: I.I. Glazunov Printing House, 1885. 848 pp.
Gorelov V.A. Rechnye kanaly v Rossii: K istorii russkikh kanalov v XVIII veke [River canals in Russia: On the history of Russian river canals in the 18th century]. Leningrad – Moscow: Ministry of Inner Water Transport of USSR, 1953, pp. 20–77.
Nikolaev A.S., Zhitkov S.M. Kratkiy istoricheskiy ocherk razvitiya vodnykh i sukhoputnykh soobshcheniy i torgovykh portov [Brief historical review of the development of water and overland communications and commercial ports]. Saint Peterburg: Printing House of M.P.S., 1900. 372 pp.
Stolpyanskiy P.N. Peterburg. Kak voznik, osnovalsya i ros Sankt-Piterburkh. [Saint Petersburg: How Saint Petersburg emerged, was found and grew]. Petrograd: Kolos, 1918. 400 pp.
Shane D.G. ‘Notes on villages as a Global Condition’, J. Bolchover, J. Lin, Ch. Lang (eds.),Designing the Rural: A Global Countryside in Flux.Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2016, pp. 48–57.
Malinovskiy K. V. Domeniko Trezini [Domenico Trezzini]. Saint Petersburg: Kriga, 2007. 231 pp.
Malinovskiy K.V. Sankt-Peterburg XVIII veka [Saint Petersburg in the 18th century]. Saint Petersburg: Kriga, 2008. 576 pp.
Kalyazina N.V., Kalyazin Ye.A. ‘Zhan Leblon’ [Jean Le Blond], V.G. Isachenko (comp.), Yu. Artemeva, S. Prokhvatilova (eds.), Zodchie Sankt-Peterburga. XVIII vek [Saint Petersburg architects. The 18th century]. Saint Petersburg: Lenizdat, 1997, pp. 67–111.
Kalyazina N.V., Kalyazin Ye.A. ‘Nezakonchennaya dissertatsiya arkhitektora Leblona’ [Unfinished thesis of the architect Le Blond], N.V. Kalyazina (ed.),Iz istorii Petrovskikh kollektsiy [From the history of Petrine collections]. Saint Petersburg: State Hermitage, 2000, pp. 66–83.
Sementsov S.V. ‘Zh.-B.-A. Leblon i D. Trezini: gradostroitelnoe sopernichestvo na Vasilevskom ostrove v 1716–1718 godakh’ [J.-B.A. Le Blond and D. Trezzini: Architectural rivalry on Vasilyevsky island in 1716–1718], G.V. Vilinbakhov et al. (eds.),Petrovskoe vremya v litsakh: Kratkoe soderzhanie dokladov nauchnykh chteniy [Peter the Great’s epoch in portraits: Abstracts of the talks on scientific readings]. Saint Petersburg: State Hermitage Press, 1999, pp. 62–66.
Sementsov S.V. ‘O "Generalnom chertezhe Sanktpiterburkhu" Zh.-B.-A. Leblona 1717 g.’ [On the “General draft of Sankt-Peters-Burch” by J.-A.B. Le Blond, 1717], G.V. Vilinbakhov et al. (eds.), Petrovskoe vremya v litsakh: Kratkoe soderzhanie dokladov nauchnykh chteniy [Peter the Great’s epoch in portraits: Abstracts of the talks on scientific readings].Saint Petersburg: State Hermitage Press, 2000, pp. 53–61.
Luppov S.P. Istoriya stroitelstva Peterburga v pervoy chetverti XVIII veka [History of Saint Petersburg construction in the first quarter of the 18th century]. Moscow – Lenngrad: AS USSR Press, 1957. 195 pp.
Sementsov S.V., Krasnikova O.A., Mazur T.P., Shrader T.A. Sankt-Peterburg na kartakh i planakh pervoy poloviny XVIII veka [Saint Petersburg on the maps and plans of the first half of the 18th century]. Saint Petersburg: Eklektika, 2004. 436 pp.
Sementsov S.V. ‘Petr Velikiy: gradostroitelnaya programma sozdaniya stolichnoy Sankt-Peterburgskoy aglomeratsii na osnove dopeterburgskoy selskoy sistemy rasseleniya Prinevya’ [Peter the Great: A city-planning program of the creation of metropolitan Saint Petersburg agglomeration based on the pre-Saint Petersburg rural settlement system on the circum-Neva region], Vestnik Sankt-Peterburgskogo universiteta, Series 15, 2012,is. 4, pp. 217–231.
Sementsov S.V. ‘Posledovatelnoe formirovanie Sanktpiterburkhskoy aglomeratsii pri Petre Pervom’ [Consistent development of Saint Petersburg agglomeration under Peter the Great], “My byli!”. General-feldtseykhmeyster Ya.V. Bryus i ego epokha [“We were!” Field-Marshal-General Ya.V. Bryus and his epoch]. Ch. 2. Saint Petersburg: Military Historical Museum of Artillery, Engineers and Signal Corps Press, 2004, pp. 52–73.
Sementsov S.V. ‘Sankt-Peterburg i ego prigorodnaya zona – krupneyshaya “idealnaya aglomeratsiya” Evropy pervoy poloviny XVIII veka’ [Saint Petersburg and its zone – the largest “ideal” agglomeration in Europe of the first half of the 18th century], Kulturnye initsiativy Petra Velikogo. Materialy II Mezhdunarodnogo kongressa petrovskikh gorodov. Sankt-Peterburg. 9–11 iyunya 2010 goda [Cultural enterprises of Peter the Great. Proceedings of the 2nd International congress on Petrine cities. Saint Petersburg, 9–11 June, 2010]. Saint Petersburg: Evropeyskiy dom, 2011, pp. 126–135.
Sementsov S.V. ‘Traditsii Petra Pervogo v sozdanii regulyarnoy Sankt-Peterburgskoy aglomeratsii v XVIII veke’ [Traditions of Peter the Great in the creation of regular Saint Petersburg agglomeration in the 18th century], V.V. Meshcheryakov, I.V. Saverkina (eds.), “Petrovskoe vremya v litsakh – 2011”. K 30-letiyu Otdela Gosudarstvennogo Ermitazha “Dvorets Menshikova” (1981–2011). Materialy nauchnoy konferentsii [Peter the Great’s epoch in portraits – 2011: On the 30th Anniversary of the “Menshikov’s Palace” Department of the State Hermitage (1981–2011). Proceedings of the scientific conference]. Saint Petersburg: State Hermitage Press, 2011, pp. 329–341.
Sementsov S.V. ‘Nachalo sozdaniya regulyarnoy Sankt-Peterburgskoy aglomeratsii pri Petre Pervom’ [Beginning of the formation of regular Saint Petersburg agglomeration under Peter the Great], Vestnik grazhdanskikh inzhenerov. 2014, is. 3(44). Saint Petersburg.Saint Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering, 2014, pp. 46–55
Publicado
2020-05-30
Como Citar
V. SEMENTSOV, S.; A. AKULOVA, N. BIRTH OF SAINT PETERSBURG AGGLOMERATION UNDER THE RULE OF PETER THE GREAT IN 1703–1724. Gênero & Direito, v. 9, n. 04, 30 maio 2020.
Seção
Seção Livre