OCCUPATIONAL RISK FACTORS FOR DEMENTIA IN A SAMPLE OF OLDER ADULTS COVERED BY THE IRANIAN OIL INDUSTRIES’ HEALTH CENTERS, 2018
Palavras-chave:Dementia, Occupational risk factors, Case-control, Oil industry
ResumoHere is a new case of dementia in the world every three seconds. It kills more people in the US than breast cancer and prostate cancer combined, while it is the number one killer in England and Wales. The current cost of the disease is about a trillion US dollars a year, and that is forecast to double by 2030.Object: The aim of this study was to determine the probable occupational and environmental risk factors of dementia among the retirees of Iranian oil industries. Methods: A case-control study of 551 randomly selected older adults, all aged 60 and above including 180 demented and 371 nondemented retirees, pair matched for education and gender, was conducted. We evaluated the adjusted associations between dementia risk and the probable occupational and environmental variables through multiple logistic regression.Results: A history of exposure to air pollution (Adjusted OR=2.00, 95%CI= 1.00-7.00), head injuries (Adjusted OR=2.00, 95%CI= 1.00-6.00) and more than 20 years of work in the operational fields (Adjusted OR=5.00, 95%CI= 3.00-8.00) was significantly correlated with an increased risk of dementia. We could not find any significant associations between dementia risk and exposure to fossil fuels, solvents, noise pollution and or a combination of occupational risk factors. Conclusion: The results propose that long-term exposure to field occupational risk factors is likely to increase the risk of dementia. We suggest simultaneous serial oil industries’ particulate evaluations with proper cognitive assessments for the pre-retired staff
DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR DEMENTIA, Dementia Australia ©2012, Reviewed 2018. https://www.dementia.org.au/files/helpsheets/Helpsheet.
International AsD. World Alzheimer report 2010: the global economic impact of dementia: Alzheimer's Disease International; 2010.
Gauthier S, Albert M, Fox N, Goedert M, Kivipelto M, Mestre-Ferrandiz J, et al. Why has therapy development for dementia failed in the last two decades? Alzheimer's & Dementia. 2016; 12(1):60-4.
Sosa-Ortiz AL, Acosta-Castillo I, Prince MJ. Epidemiology of dementias and Alzheimer’s disease. Archives of medical research. 2012; 43(8):600-8.
Bellou V, Belbasis L, Tzoulaki I, Middleton LT, Ioannidis JP, Evangelou E. Systematic evaluation of the associations between environmental risk factors and dementia: An umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Alzheimer's & Dementia. 2017; 13(4):406-18.
Norton S, Matthews FE, Barnes DE, Yaffe K, Brayne C. Potential for primary prevention of Alzheimer's disease: an analysis of population-based data. The Lancet Neurology. 2014; 13(8):788-9426.
Ott A, Stolk R, Van Harskamp F, Pols H, Hofman A, Breteler M. Diabetes mellitus and the risk of dementia The Rotterdam Study. Neurology. 1999; 53(9):1937-.
Peila R, Rodriguez BL, Launer LJ. Type 2 diabetes, APOE gene, and the risk for dementia and related pathologies The Honolulu-Asia Aging Study. Diabetes. 2002; 51(4):1256-62.
Skoog I, Nilsson L, Persson G, Lernfelt B, Landahl S, Palmertz B, et al. 15-year longitudinal study of blood pressure and dementia. The Lancet. 1996; 347(9009):1141-5.
Swiger K, Manalac R, Blumenthal R, editors. Statin use reduces risk of dementia. Mayo Clin Proc; 2013.
Mitchell AJ. Depression as a risk factor for later dementia: a robust relationship? Age and ageing. 2005;34(3):207-9.
Janicki SC, Schupf N. Hormonal influences on cognition and risk for Alzheimer’s disease. Current neurology and neuroscience reports. 2010;10(5):359-66.
Seshadri S, Beiser A, Selhub J, Jacques PF, Rosenberg IH, D'Agostino RB, et al. Plasma homocysteine as a risk factor for dementia and Alzheimer's disease. New England Journal of Medicine. 2002;346(7):476-83.
Gustafson D, Rothenberg E, Blennow K, Steen B, Skoog I. An 18-year follow-up of overweight and risk of Alzheimer disease. Archives of internal medicine. 2003; 163(13):1524-8.
Riggs JE. The influence of smoking on the risk of Alzheimer’s disease. Neurology. 2000;54(3):777--a.
Breteler M. Vascular risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease:: An epidemiologic perspective. Neurobiology of aging. 2000;21(2):153-60.
Dong-Mei Zhang, MD, Jian-Xin Ye, MD, Jun-Shan Mu, MD,
Xiao-Ping Cui, PhD. Efficacy of Vit B Supplementation on Cognition in Elderly Patients with Cognitive-Related Diseases :A Systematic review and Meta-Analysis. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology.2017. Vol. 30(1)50-59.
Ramos MI, Allen LH, Mungas DM, Jagust WJ, Haan MN, Green R, et al. Low folate status is associated with impaired cognitive function and dementia in the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging–. The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2005;82(6):1346-52.
Sommer I, Griebler U, Kien C, Auer S, Klerings I, Hammer R, et al. Vitamin D deficiency as a risk factor for dementia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC geriatrics. 2017;17(1):16.
Sharp ES, Gatz M. The relationship between education and dementia an updated systematic review. Alzheimer disease and associated disorders. 2011;25(4):289.
Bertram L, Lill CM, Tanzi RE. The genetics of Alzheimer disease: back to the future. Neuron. 2010;68(2):270-81.
Julie Hugo, Mary Ganguli . Dementia and Cognitive Impairment: Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment. Clin Geriatr Med. 2014 Aug; 30(3): 421–442.
Seyedian M., Falah M., Nourouzian M., Nejat S., Delavar A., Ghasemzadeh H.A. Validity of the Farsi version of MINI-MENTAL STATE EXAMINATION. JOURNAL OF MEDICAL COUNCIL OF I.R.I. WINTER 2008 , Volume 25 , Number 4 ; Page(s) 408 To 414.
Wu Y-C, Lin Y-C, Yu H-L, Chen J-H, Chen T-F, Sun Y, et al. Association between air pollutants and dementia risk in the elderly. Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring. 2015;1(2):220-8.
Hernandez-Zimbron L, Rivas-Arancibia S. Oxidative stress caused by ozone exposure induces β-amyloid 1–42 overproduction and mitochondrial accumulation by activating the amyloidogenic pathway. Neuroscience. 2015;304:340-8.
Plassman BL, Havlik R, Steffens D, Helms M, Newman T, Drosdick D, et al. Documented head injury in early adulthood and risk of Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias. Neurology. 2000;55(8):1158-66.
Salib E, HILLIER V. Head injury and the risk of Alzheimer's disease: a case control study. International journal of geriatric psychiatry. 1997;12(3):363-8.
Li Y, Li Y, Li X, Zhang S, Zhao J, Zhu X, et al. Head injury as a risk factor for dementia and Alzheimer’s disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 32 observational studies. PloS one. 2017;12(1):e0169650.
Mez J, Daneshvar DH, Kiernan PT, Abdolmohammadi B, Alvarez VE, Huber BR, et al. Clinicopathological evaluation of chronic traumatic encephalopathy in players of American football. Jama. 2017;318(4):360-70.
Graves AB, Rosner D, Echeverria D, Mortimer JA, Larson EB. Occupational exposures to solvents and aluminium and estimated risk of Alzheimer's disease. Occupational and environmental medicine. 1998;55(9):627-33.
Block ML, Calderón-Garcidueñas L. Air pollution: mechanisms of neuroinflammation and CNS disease. Trends in neurosciences. 2009;32(9):506-16