KINSMEN, FRIENDS OR MERCENARIES? PROBLEMATISING THE PRESENCE OF INTERNATIONAL FORCES IN SCANDINAVIA BETWEEN THE TWELFTH AND THE FOURTEENTH CENTURIES
This article explores the growing presence of foreign troops in Scandinavia between the twelfth and fourteenth centuries, and aims to elucidate the causes behind the changing patterns of mercenary service in the region. After conceptualising the term ‘mercenary’ from a medieval perspective, the article examines the narrative and administrative corpora in order to identify the origins and motivations of foreign troops in Scandinavian service. The exposition of the primary sources is followed by a comparative discussion, which aims to understand the presence and development of international troops from an inter-Scandinavian perspective.
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