• Feliphe Souza de Alencar Lacerda Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte
  • Ermeton Do Nascimento Duarte Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte
  • Magnólia Florêncio de Araújo Fernandes Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte


Bioremediation, Chromobacterium violaceum, heavy metals.


The release of metals in ecosystems results in not only environmental damage, but also harm to the health and quality of human life. This study aims to compare and discuss the research evolution performed worldwide, which made use of the potential of Chromobacterium violaceum for bioremediation of heavy metals. The study consists of a systematic review, limited to research published between 2001 and 2015, using LILACS, PubMed, and SciELO databases. The bioleaching technique was further discussed; gold was the bioremediated substrate most mentioned, and cyanidation was the prevalent phenotypic mechanism. Genetic mechanisms were mentioned in 29.4% of the publications, and among proteins transcribed by C. violaceum 18.3% were hypothetical. The adaptive versatility of C. violaceum reveals its great biotechnological potential on environmental pollution by heavy metals, favoring environmental conservation. However, the high number of hypothetical ORFs (Open Reading Frame) highlights the need for further research.


Não há dados estatísticos.

Biografia do Autor

Feliphe Souza de Alencar Lacerda, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte

Centro de Biociências Departamento de Microbiologia e Parasitologia

Ermeton Do Nascimento Duarte, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte

Centro de Biociências Departamento de Microbiologia e Parasitologia

Magnólia Florêncio de Araújo Fernandes, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte

Centro de Biociências Departamento de Microbiologia e Parasitologia


Antônio RV, Pasa TBC. 2004. Genetic analysis of violacein biosynthesis by Chromobacterium violaceum. Genetics and Molecular Research, 3(1):85-91.

Azevedo JSN et al. 2008. Gene expression of the arsenic resistance operon in Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC12471. Can. J. Microbiol, 54:137-142.

Bevilaqua D et al. 2002. Oxidation of chalcopyrite by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans in shake flasks. Process Biochemistry, 38:87-592.

Bosch FJ et al. 2008. Successful treatment of Chromobacterium violaceum sepsis in South Africa. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 57:1293-1295.

Brandl H et al. 2008. Biomobilization of silver, gold, and platinum from solid waste materials by HCN-forming microorganisms. Hydrometallurgy, 94(1-4):14-17.

Brandl H, Faramarzi MA. 2006. Microbe-metal-interactions for the biotechnological treatment of metal-containing solid waste. China Particuology, 4(2):93–97.

Byamukama D et al. 2005. Contrasting occurrence of Chromobacterium violaceum in tropical drinking water springs of Uganda. Journal of Water and Health, 3:229-238.

Campbell SC et al. 2001. Biogenic production of cyanide and its application to gold recovery. Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, 26 (3):134–139.

Carepo MSP et al. 2004. Identification of Chromobacterium violaceum genes with potential biotechnological application in environmental detoxification. Genetics and Molecular Research, 3(1):181–194.

Chang CY et al. 2007. Chromobacterium violaceum infection in Taiwan: a case report and literature review. Journal Microbiology Immunology Infection, 40 (3):272-275.

Chattopadhyay A, Kumar V, Bhat N, Karnataka R. 2002. Chromobacterium violaceum Infection: A Rare But Frequently Fatal Disease. Journal of Pediatric Surgery, 37:108-110.

Chi TD et al. 2011. Bioleaching of gold and copper from waste mobile phone PCBs by using a cyanogenic bacterium. Minerals Engineering, 24(11):1219–1222.

Crosse PA et al. 2006. Chromobacterium violaceum infection in two dogs. J. Am. Anim. Hosp. Assoc, 42(2):154-159.

Currie BJ, Carapetis JR. 2000. Skin infections and infestations in Aboriginal communities in northern Australia. Australasian Journal of Dermatology, 41:139-145.

Dall’agnol LT et al. 2008. Diversity of Chromobacterium violaceum isolates from aquatic environments of state of Pará, Brazilian Amazon. Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, 103(7):678-682.

De Siqueira IC et al. 2005. Chromobacterium violaceum in siblings. Brazilian Emerging Infectious Disease, 11(9):1443-1445.

Desoize B. 2003. Metals and metal compounds in carcinogenesis. In Vivo, 17(6):529-539.

Dias JP et al. 2005. Chromobacteriosis in Ilhéus, Bahia: epidemiologic, clinical and laboratorial investigation. Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical, 38(6):503-506.

Dias JRLC et al. 2002. Semiempirical INDOS/S study on the absorption spectrum of violacein. Jornal of Molecular Structure: THEOCHEM, 580:85-90.

Duarte FT et al. 2004. DNA repair in Chromobacterium violaceum. Genetics and Molecular Research, 3(1):167-180.

Durán, N, Menck CF. 2001. Chromobacterium violaceum: a review of pharmacological and industiral perspectives. Crit. Rev. Microbiol, 27 (3):201-222.

Fairbrother L et al. 2009. Effect of the cyanide-producing bacterium Chromobacterium violaceum on ultraflat Au surfaces. Chemical Geology, 265(3-4):313–320.

Faramarzi MA et al. 2004. Metal solubilization from metal-containing solid materials by cyanogenic Chromobacterium violaceum. Journal of biotechnology, 113(1-3): 6-321.

Gaylarde CC, Belinaso ML, Manfio GP (2005) Aspectos biologicos e técnicos da biorremediaçao de xenobióticos. Biotecnologia ciência e desenvolvimento, 34: 36-43.

Grangeiro TB et al. 2004. Transport genes of Chromobacterium violaceum. Genetics and Molecular Research, 3(1):117-133, 2004.

Guo J, Xu Z. 2009. Recycling of non-metallic fractions from waste printed boards: a review. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 168(2-3):567-590.

Haghshenas DF et al. 2009. Adaptation of Acidithiobacillus ferroo¬xidans to high grade sphalerite concentrate. Minerals Engineering, 22:1299-1306.

Hungria M et al. 2005. Genetic characterization of Chromobacterium isolates from black water environments in the Brazilian Amazon. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 41:17-23.

Kita Y, Nishikawa H, Takemoto T (2006) Effects of cyanide and dissolved oxygen concentration on biological Au recovery. Journal of biotechnology 124(3):545–51.

Lima CVS. 2008. Potencial de fitoextração do nabo forrageiro e da aveia preta em argissolo contaminado por cádmio. 52 p. Dissertação (Mestrado em ciências do solo) - Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, UFRS, Faculdade de Agronomia, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência do Solo.

Lima DC et al. 2014. The influence of iron on the proteomic profile of Chromobacterium violaceum. BMC Microbiology, 14:267.

Lima-bittencourt CI et al. (2007) Analysis of Chromobacterium sp. natural isolates from different Brazilian ecosystems. BMC microbiology 7:58.

Manjunath M. 2007. Fatal septicaemia due to Chromobacterium violaceum. West Indian Med J, 56(4):1-380

Martinez P, Mattar S. 2007. Fatal septicemia caused by Chromobacterium violaceum in a child from Colombia. Revista Instituto Medicina Tropical, 49(6):391-393

Martinez R et al. 2000. Chromobacterium violaceum infection in Brazil. A case report. Revista Instituto Medicina Tropical, 42(2):111-113.

Momen AZ, Hoshino T. 2000. Biosynthesis of violacein: intact incorporation of the tryptophan molecule on the oxindole side, with intramolecular rearrangement of the indole ring on the 5-hydroxyindole side. Bioscience Biotechnology Biochemistry, 64(3):539-49.

Moura MCPA. 2001. Utilização de Microemulsões como Agentes Modificadores de Superfícies para Remoção de Íons Metálicos. 203 p. Tese (Doutorado em engenharia química) - Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, UFRN, Programa de pós-graduação em engenharia química.

Mukhopadhyay RR et al. 2002. Microbial arsenic: from geocycles to genes and enzymes. FEMS Microbiol Rev, 26(3):311-325.

Perez F et al. 2007. The continuing challenge of ESBLs. Current Opinion in Pharmacology, 7:459–469.

Pérez JAD, García J, Villamizar LAR. 2007. Sepsis by Chromobacterium violaceum: First Case Report from Colombia. The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases, 11(4):441-442.

Pradhan JK., Kumar S. 2012. Metals bioleaching from electronic waste by Chromobacterium violaceum and Pseudomonads sp. Waste management & research : the journal of the International Solid Wastes and Public Cleansing Association, ISWA, 30(11):1151–9.

Pradhan N et al. 2008. Heap bioleaching of chalcopyrite: A review. Minerals Engineering 21:355-365.

Ray P et al. (2004) Chromobacterium violaceum septicaemia from north India. Indian Journal Medical, 120:523-526.

Sand W et al. 2001. (Bio)chemistry of bacterial leaching-direct vs. indirect bioleaching. Hydrometallurgy, 59:159-175.

Scholz HC et al. (2006) Genotyping of Ochrobactrum anthropi by recA-based comparative sequence, PCR-RFLP, and 16S rRNA gene analysis. FEMS Microbiol Lett 257:7-16.

Shin D et al. 2013. Evaluation of bioleaching factors on gold recovery from ore by cyanide-producing bacteria. Minerals Engineering, 48:20–24.

Singh A et al. 2010 Health risk assessment of heavy metals via dietary intake of foodstuffs from the wastewater irrigated site of a dry tropical area of India. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 48:611–619.

Sirinavin S et al. 2005. Invasive Chromobacterium violaceum infection in children: case report and review. Pediatr Infect Dis J, 24(6):559-561.

Sumita TC et al. 2007. Avaliação da interação de Zinco , Alumínio , Cobre e Manganês em Chromobacterium violaceum. Ambiente & Água - An Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Science, 2(3): 44–53.

Tay SB et al. 2013. Enhancing gold recovery from electronic waste via lixiviant metabolic engineering in Chromobacterium violaceum. Scientific reports, 3:2236.

Teoh AYB et al. 2006. Fatal septicaemia from Chromobacterium violaceum: case reports and review of the literature. Hong Kong Medical Journal, 12.

Vasconcelos ATR et al. 2003. The complete genome sequence of Chromobacterium violaceum reveals remarkable and exploitable bacterial adaptability. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America – PNAS, 100(20):11660–11665.

Veit HM et al. 2006. Recovery of Copper from Printed Circuit Boards Scraps by Mechanical Processing and Electrometallurgy. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 137:1704-1709.

Waisberg M, Joseph B, Beyersmann D. 2003. Molecular and cellular machanisms of cadmiun carcinogenesis. Toxicology, 192(2-3):95-117.

Weber J. 2004. Biogeochemical processes and role of heavy metals in the soil environment. Geoderma, 122:105-107.

Wooley PG. 1905. Bacillus violaceus manilae (a pathogenic organism). Bull John Hopkins Hospital, 16:89-93.




Como Citar

LACERDA, F. S. de A.; DUARTE, E. D. N.; FERNANDES, M. F. de A. MICROBIOLOGY FOR ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF BIOREMEDIATION OF HEAVY METALS BY Chromobacterium violaceum. Gaia Scientia, [S. l.], v. 10, n. 4, 2016. Disponível em: https://periodicos.ufpb.br/ojs2/index.php/gaia/article/view/29306. Acesso em: 25 jan. 2022.



Ciências Ambientais