INVESTIGATING THE EFFECTS OF LOW IMPACT DEVELOPMENT (LID) ON SURFACE RUNOFF AND TSS IN A CALIBRATED HYDRODYNAMIC MODEL

Sezar Gülbaz, Cevza Melek Kazezyilmaz-Alhan

Abstract


The land development and increase in urbanization in a watershed affect water quantity and water quality. On one hand, urbanization provokes the adjustment of geomorphic structure of the streams, ultimately raises peak flow rate which causes flood; on the other hand, it diminishes water quality which results in an increase in Total Suspended Solid (TSS). Consequently, sediment accumulation in downstream of urban areas is observed which is not preferred for longer life of dams. In order to overcome the sediment accumulation problem in dams, the amount of TSS in streams and in watersheds should be taken under control. Low Impact Development (LID) is a Best Management Practice (BMP) which may be used for this purpose. It is a land planning and engineering design method which is applied in managing storm water runoff in order to reduce flooding as well as simultaneously improve water quality. LID includes techniques to predict suspended solid loads in surface runoff generated over impervious urban surfaces. In this study, the impact of LID-BMPs on surface runoff and TSS is investigated by employing a calibrated hydrodynamic model for Sazlıdere Watershed which is located in Istanbul, Turkey. For this purpose, a calibrated hydrodynamic model was developed by using Environmental Protection Agency Storm Water Management Model (EPA SWMM). For model calibration and validation, we set up a rain gauge and a flow meter into the field and obtain rainfall and flow rate data. And then, we select several LID types such as retention basins, vegetative swales and permeable pavement and we obtain their influence on peak flow rate and pollutant buildup and washoff for TSS. Consequently, we observe the possible effects of LID on surface runoff and TSS in Sazlıdere Watershed.

Keywords


Low Impact Development; TSS; hydrodynamic model; SWMM; Sazlıdere

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.4090/juee.2015.v9n2.91-96

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ISSN 1982-3932
DOI: 10.4090/juee


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